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Earth and its Climate

October 17, 2022    7 min read

Climate is a weather pattern that persists in a particular area for a longertime, typically a few years. There are different types of climates in different parts of the world. Some have icy polar caps and experience extremely low temperatures, while some tropical areas have a hot climate, and some coastal areas are humid and windy.

Earth's climate depends upon five components: atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, hydrosphere, and cryosphere.

These components depend on each other to determine the climate of a place. The atmosphere, which is the air surrounding us, plays a massive role in determining the climate of the Earth.It insulates the Earth by trapping heat and transporting water vapor. The cryosphere consisting of glaciers and ice sheets regulates temperature by reflecting sunlight and limiting the amount of heat absorbed by the Earth.

While the lithosphere is solid, Earth absorbs solar energy and directs ocean currents with the help of various landforms. The biosphere consists of all the living organisms that help exchange carbon dioxide with the atmosphere and ocean. The hydrosphere contains all the water bodies that absorb heat and carbon dioxide and transportit around the planet.

Did You Know? The ocean holds 50 times more CO2 and 1,000 times more heat than the atmosphere.

The climate of a place is dependent upon many factors. Some of them are latitude, distance from the sea, altitude, and relief features. The latitude of a place governs the amount of heat reaching the area. The ocean current from the sea impacts the climate of coastal areas, and the sea makes the climate moderate. Therefore. places that are far away from the sea experience extreme temperatures. The altitude of a place determines its climate because the higher the elevation, the lesser the temperature will be. Landforms such as mountains can cause climatic changes. The higher mountains can work as boundaries for the hot and cold breeze and cause rainfall if it is high enough to sustain rainy winds.

Climate changes occur due to natural and man-made. The natural causes are the slow drift of continents, volcanic eruptions, and other rare abnormal changes in the atmosphere. Still the human impact on climate has grown significantly over the last hundred years. The trace gases that emit into the atmosphere due to human activities have negatively impacted the carbon cycle. The carbon cycle is crucial to regulate the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere, which determines the planet's climate. The significant rise in CO2 concentration in atmosphere causes a significant elevation in temperature, causing Global Warming. These carbon emissions have serious consequences, such as droughts, scarcity of water, forest fires, rising sea levels, severe floods melting polar ice, catastrophic storms and declining biodiversity. We need to be aware of these extreme environmental hazards that will affect everyone in the near future. We can take many steps to fight climate change and reduce global warming.

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